Low import dependency in the larger product groups

Tom Smith

CBS analysed the potential vulnerability of the Netherlands in terms of the security of supply of particular product groups. The analysis was limited to product groups with an import value exceeding 250 million euros and intended for domestic use (excluding imports for re-exportation). The import concentration was calculated per product group. […]

CBS analysed the potential vulnerability of the Netherlands in terms of the security of supply of particular product groups. The analysis was limited to product groups with an import value exceeding 250 million euros and intended for domestic use (excluding imports for re-exportation). The import concentration was calculated per product group. This is the extent to which the supply is dominated by a few large players. In addition, CBS examined whether these product groups are offered on the world market by only a few countries or whether there are alternative suppliers.

Imports from one or a few countries and limited number of global suppliers

Maize is one of the few commodities that are imported from a small number of countries and that have a relatively high export concentration in world trade at the same time. In 2019, the Netherlands imported 973 million euros worth of maize, nearly two-thirds of which came from Ukraine. The world market for maize is somewhat concentrated, with the United States as the largest exporter. Together with Brazil, Argentina and Ukraine, it accounts for three-quarters of global maize exports.

Import of coal for domestic use is concentrated as well: over 60 percent was supplied by Russia and the United States. The world coal market is slightly concentrated. Australia, Indonesia and Russia together account for more than 70 percent of global coal exports.

Commodities with a high import concentration and concentrated world market, 2019
Commodity HHI index for imports Import value (million euros) Main supplier World export concentration
Maize 0.44 973 Ukraine Slightly concentrated
Coal 0.27 1071 Russia Slightly concentrated